Magnifera indica is the king of fruits. India is the world’s largest producer of mangoes. It has been estimated that there are over 1000 commercial varieties in India, where mangos are often called the “king of fruits”. The total fruit production of India Mango’s contribution is 39.5%.
Mango trees are deep-rooted, symmetrical evergreens that attain heights of 60 feet and widths of 50 feet. Mango trees have simple alternate lancelet leaves that are 12 to 16 inches in length and yellow-green, purple, or copper in color when young. Mature leaves are leathery, glossy, and deep green in color. New leaves arise in terminal growth flushes that occur several times a year.
Mango can be eaten raw as a dessert fruit or processed to various products. Ripe fruits can be sliced and canned or processed to juice, jams, jellies, nectars and preserves. Eastern and Asian cultures use unripe mangos for pickles, chutney and relishes. In India, unripe mangos are sliced, dried, and made into powder for amchoor, a traditional Indian preparation used for cooking. The timber is used for boats, flooring, furniture and other applications.
They are propagated by grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Polyembryonic mango varieties, like the so-called common or Hawaiian mango varieties, Grafted trees grow more slowly than seedling trees and are often smaller. Grafted trees usually produce fruit in 2 to 3 years in dry areas, while seedling trees usually take at least five years to come into bearing.
SOIL TYPES and LOCATION
Mangos can be grown on a wide range of soil types, from light sandy loams to red clay soils. Soil pH of 5.5 to 7.5 is preferred. Deep rich soils give the best production and fruit quality. Well drained soils are recommended. Moderately sloping sites are also recommended to prevent water-logging. Deep soils without impermeable layers permits the development of deep taproots that aids in drought tolerance and wind resistance. Dry weather during the flowering period is best for fruit production. Wind can damage flowers and reduce yields. Mango trees should be protected from strong winds, but windbreaks that shade or compete with them should be avoided. Mangos will grow from sea level to an elevation of about 1,500 feet in Hawaii, but mangos are most productive below 1,200 feet. Mango is best adapted to hot, dry leeward areas that receive less than 60 inches of rainfall annually.
Fertilizer & Mannring :
Vary with region, soil type and age. 73 N, 18 p205and 68 k205 in 2 split doses during June- July and October. Spray zinc sulphate in Feb, March& May. Boraan (0.5%) after fruit set twice at monthly intervals. 0.5% magnere sulphate after blooming.
Fertilizer may be a 1:1:1 or 1:2:2 N-P-K ratio formulation, such as 16-16-16 or 10-20-20 N-P-K. During tree establishment, phosphorus (P) is important for root development. Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) are needed by bearing trees for good yields. Young trees should receive 0.1 to 0.2 pound of N (e.g., 1 to 2 pounds of 10-20-20 fertilizer) per year during the first year and 0.15 to 0.3 pound of N (e.g., 1.5 to 3 pounds of 10-20-20) during years two and three. The total annual amount of fertilizer should be divided into three or four applications, preferably applied before growth flushes are anticipated. Pruning can also be done to restrict tree size for small yards or when more than 35 trees per acre are planted. Developing trees should be trained to eliminate low branches less than 2 feet from the ground, leaving three to four main branches on the trunk at different heights. The few fruits set in a tree’s first years of fruiting should be removed to speed up tree development.
A tropical fruit Temperature 24 to 40 c is ideal. Rainfall 25cm to 300cm. Bright sunny days and moderate humidity during flowering is ideal for mango growing.
Throughout the year , june – july ideal except in extreme cold .
For Kalmi Aaam – 10×10 meter
For – 12×12 meter
For Dwarf – 3×3 meter ( like Amarpali, mallika etc) For hi- density planting
New plants need at least 30 liters every week. Grown-up trees at10 days intervals. Watering may vary or the age, soil and climate.
Varieties Available : Amarpali, Langra, Mallika, Himsagar and Anmol.
Mango trees may remain in production for 40 years or more. Fruits are usually picked after they develop some red, orange, or yellow color. Mangos will ripen and may be picked when the flesh inside has turned yellow, regardless of exterior color. The harvest season is usually between June and September , depending on variety. Fruit matures three to five months after flowering.
Mangos should be picked before they are fully ripe, at which time they soften and fall. The fruit bruises easily and must be handled carefully to avoid damage. They are ripened at room temperature and then refrigerated. Mature mangos keep fairly well under refrigeration for two to three weeks at 50 to 55°F.
- Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata
- Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis
- Mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae
- Scales, including Ceroplastes rubens, Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli
- Red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus
- Mango blossom midge, Dasineura mangiferae
- Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula
- Mango shoot caterpillar, Penicellaria jocosatrix
- Black twig borer, Xylosandrus cornpactus